The traditional alternative to capitalism between national left and social Catholicism
Capitalism was born at the end of the Middle Ages, when the merchant-bankers gradually reduced the artisans to wage-earners. The separation between possession of financial resources, guaranteed by the private monopoly of credit, and the means of production, on the one hand, and labor, on the other, is the essence of capitalism. The way to overcome it is not in the statization of the goods of production, but rather in the “legal” reunification of capital and labor, through the co-ownership of companies by all those who contribute to it. Only “credit” must be “published” in order to make it work at the service of the real economy and not for speculative and antisocial purposes. During the twentieth century, different political cultures, of often divergent philosophical and spiritual matrix, have developed ideas, proposals, studies and even attempted practical reforms aimed at “associating” the factors of production, in an organicist vision. Among them are important, also for the reflections they left in the current Republican Constitution of 1946, the so-called “national left”, of Mazzinian and Roussevian heritage, which constituted the left wing, revolutionary, of Fascism, in critical tension with the regime conditioned by the conservative supporters; as well as the “Social Catholicism” which has its roots in the ecclesial organizations of the nineteenth century and which developed in the twentieth century, especially within the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart until it reached the more social currents of the Catholic party that governed Italy in the long post-war period.
capitalism, national left, social Catholicism, co-ownership, co-management, organicism, social democracy.